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A few weeks ago Apache Cordova 3.3.0 was released (you can read the details here) and one of the things that caught my eye was this:
CB-5487 Enable Remote Debugging when your Android app is debuggable.
Chrome Remote Debugging is a cool feature, but so far it had not been available with PhoneGap apps. I can confirm that with a Cordova 3.3.0 project, this works great. I made a virgin project, launched it (in the emulator), and it showed up right away as a debuggable device. (Note that your emulator has to be using Android 4.4 or higher.)
And just to prove it works, I went into the DOM, modified it, and it showed up live in the app itself.